A digital clock, works with a mechanical time base that can define the accuracy of the clock. That through an adapter can generate a periodic signal. A mechanical clock are basically gears, principles of physics and mechanics that have been known for a long time. Inside a motor spring there is a hardened steel strip or band which, when rolled, generates a torsional force used by the watch to move the mechanism. It is the contact between these two parts, exhaust wheel and anchor that produces the famous tic-tac. By means of a train of gears the force is reduced and the speed increases, finalizing in a gear wheel of special way, call wheel of escape, which connects with a called piece ancora which is in charge to turn the rotary movement that provides the enough energy to oscillate.
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Finally, the pendulum or the wheel marks the passage of time and is known as the regulatory body. The clock uses its oscillations or constant alternations to determine the passage of time: the more precise the mechanism, the less variations there will be in the periodicity of the oscillations.
Normally the number of gears or wheels that a mechanical watch possesses is a direct consequence of the estimated time in which the spring or the weight will provide sufficient power to operate.
The energy accumulated in the motor or barrel.
The wheels or gears that form the undercarriage.
The leak where the excess energy is going to stop.
The regulator or oscillator that is responsible for containing that extra energy.
The screen where the hands are seen to check the time.
Network pattern. It has no oscillator and uses 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) of the network as a reference. It is the simplest, but it is quite accurate in the medium term, because the alterations in the network frequency usually need the network, which does not allow its portable use and also, in front of a power outage, loses the time. There are models that include an oscillator and batteries, so that the oscillator and the counters continue to work during the cut, so the time is not lost.
Standard station. The time base comes to be some type of PLL (Loops of phase tracking), hooked with some of the time stations. They set time alone and switch to winter or summer time autonomously. Its drawback is that it needs the hourly signal, so that in "dark" areas it does not present major advantages.
Fingerboard clock. The oscillator is controlled by a tuning fork interspersed in the feedback loop. It has already fallen into disuse, but at the time they were high-end, and Bulova, for example, had wrist-band tuning clocks.
Quartz watch It replaces the tuning fork with a quartz resonator, usually at 32768 Hz, since it is an exact power of two, which simplifies the frequency divider. Because of its stability and economy, it has displaced all other types of clock in the usual applications.
Atomic clock (Ammonia, cesium, etc.) It is based on including in the feedback loop a cavity with molecules of the appropriate substance, so that the resonance of one of its atoms is excited.
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